Improving European Gas Infrastructure Regulation: Lessons from Theory and Practice

  • Jeroen de Joode Delft University of Technology
  • Aldo Spanjer Leiden University
Keywords: Regulation, Gas infrastructure, Investment,


As an instrument to trigger and speed up new investments in gas infrastructure across the European Union, the European Commission has implemented an exemption regime where new investment projects can apply for an exemption from default third party access regulation and tariff regulation. In this contribution we assess access holiday and transaction cost economics’ literature and derive conditions for applying an exemption regime. We test whether these conditions are applied in practice by analysing the exemption application process of the Netherlands – UK interconnector (BBL). We conclude that current practice could substantially be improved.