Energy Indicators to Assess Sustainable Development at the National Level: Acting on the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation

  • Ivan A. Vera
  • Kathleen L. Abdalla


When world leaders met at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002), energy was a central theme of deliberation in the context of both socio-economic development and environmental protection. The resulting Johannesburg Plan of Implementation highlights access to energy as central to facilitating poverty eradication and to changing unsustainable patterns of consumption and production. While countries face different challenges in implementing sustainable development objectives, a common need is the ability to accurately assess current conditions, policy effectiveness and goals for the future.